1469 – Philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy.
1802 – Washington, D.C., was incorporated as a city.
1933 – Nellie Ross became the first female director of the U.S. Mint.
1944 – Dr. Robert Woodward and Dr. William Doering produced the first synthetic quinine at Harvard University.
1952 – Lte. Col. Joseph O. Fletcher and Lte. Col. William P. Benedict landed the first airplane at the North Pole.
1979 – Margaret Thatcher became Britain’s first female Prime Minister.