1853 – Cecil John Rhodes, diamond tycoon and founder of the Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University, was born in Bishop’s Stortford, England. The African country of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was named after him.
1865 – William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London, England.
1865 – The United States Secret Service was created. At first, the agency was only responsible for protecting against the counterfeiting of U.S. currency. In 1901, following the assassination of President William McKinley, the Secret Service began protecting the President of the U.S.
1947 – Larry Doby became the first Black baseball player in the American League when he joined the Cleveland Indians.
1951 – Dr. William Shockley announced that he had invented a working and efficient junction transistor at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ.
1975 – Arthur Ashe defeated Jimmy Connors to become the first Black man to win Wimbledon.
1991 – Regulators in seven countries, including the U.S., shut down BCCI (Bank of Credit and Commerce International). The institution and four of its units were indicted for fraud, theft and money laundering from corrupt activities. In July 1990, 5 former officials of BCCI had been convicted in Tampa, FL, for laundering $32 million in cocaine profits for Colombia’s Medellín drug cartel.
1996 – Scientists at the Roslin Institute in Scotland announced they had successfully cloned a mammal from an adult cell, a sheep named Dolly.