1099 – Christian knights from Europe capture Jerusalem after seven weeks of a siege and begin massacring the city’s Jewish and Muslim residents, during what’s regarded as the First Crusade.
1789 – Parisian revolutionaries and mutinous troops storm and dismantle the Bastille, a royal fortress, thus launching the French Revolution. This day is still celebrated as Bastille Day or Fete National in France.
1798 – The U.S. Congress passed the Sedition Act, changing the period of residency required before immigrants could apply for citizenship from 5 to 14 years.
1862 – Florence Bascom, the first female geologist appointed to the U.S. Geological Survey and the first to be elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, was born in Williamstown, MA.
1868 – Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, CT, patented the tape measure.
1881 – New México Sheriff Pat Garrett shot outlaw Henry McCarty, a.k.a. “Billy the Kid,” to death at the Maxwell Ranch in New México.
1903 – Author Irving Stone (Lust for Life, Love is Eternal, The Agony and the Ecstasy) was born in San Francisco, CA.
1908 – The Adventures of Dolly opened at the Union Square Theatre in New York City. It was the first film release for director D.W. Griffith.
1910 – Cartoonist William Hanna (half of Hanna-Barbera team; The Flintstones) was born in Melrose, NM.
1912 – Folk singer – songwriter Woody Guthrie (This Land is Your Land, Hard Travelin’, Union Maid, So Long It’s Been Good to Know Yuh, Dirty Overalls, Pretty Boy Floyd) was born in Okemah, OK.
1913 – Gerald R. Ford (Leslie King, Jr.: changed name to Gerald Ford after his adoptive father; 38th U.S. President) was born in Omaha, NE.
1914 – Robert H. Goddard of Worcester, MA, patented liquid rocket fuel.
1918 – Movie director Ingmar Bergman (Through a Glass Darkly, The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries, Cries and Whispers, Fanny and Alexander) was born in Uppsala, Sweden.
1946 – Dr. Benjamin Spock published Baby and Child Care.