On July 7…

1754 – King’s College opened in New York City.  It was renamed Columbia College in 1784 and, later, became Columbia University.

1860 – Composer Gustav Mahler was born in Vienna, Austria.

1865 – Mary Surratt became the first woman executed by the federal government for her role as a conspirator in President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination.

1887 – Artist Marc Chagall (Red Nude Sitting Up, I and the Village, Bride with a Fan, The Cattle Dealer, Jew at Prayer, Bella with a White Collar) was born in Liozna, Belarus, Russia.

1898 – The United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands.

Inauguration of Sanford Dole, the first governor of Hawaii, with him transferring the Sovereignty of Hawaii to United State Minister Harold M. Seewall.


1899 – Movie director George Cukor (My Fair Lady, A Star is Born, Born Yesterday, Love Among the Ruins, The Philadelphia Story) was born in New York City.

1902 – Movie director Vittorio de Sica (The Garden of the Finzi-Continis, Marriage Italian Style, Two Women, The Bicycle Thief; actor: The Shoes of the Fisherman, It Started in Naples) was born in Sora, Lazio, Italy.  (Some sources list his birth year as 1901.)

1976 – The U.S. Military Academy at West Point, NY, admitted women for the first time.

1981 – Sandra Day O’Connor, an Arizona court of appeals judge, became the first woman nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court.  The Senate unanimously approved her appointment on September 21.

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